This study focuses on the challenges affecting the implementation of Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Nigeria using Ijebu-Ode Local Government Area of Ogun State as a case study. This study identifies the major challenges that stand as a bottleneck towards the implementation of Universal Basic Education. Questionnaire was administered to collect relevant data which was analyzed, using the simple percentages method. It was discovered that poor monitoring and supervision of schools, working distance, inadequate infrastructural facilities, lack of qualified personnel (teachers) among others were responsible for poor implementation of the programme. Having identified the problems, recommendations were further made to help in solving the problem. The researcher recommended that government needs to provide enough fund for the assessment and monitoring of the schools, provision of school facilities, recruitment of qualified teachers among others have to be vigorously pursued and achieved if the objectives of Universal Basic Education is to be ascertained.